K.H. Mair, H. Koinig, W. Gerner, A. Höhne, J. Bretthauer, J.J. Kroll, M.B. Roof, A. Saalmüller, K. Stadler and R. Libanova. Elsevier B.V. 2015
Adjuvants enhance both the magnitude and duration of immune responses, therefore representing a central component of vaccines. The nature of the adjuvant can determine the particular type of immune response, which may be skewed toward cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses, antibody responses, or particular classes of T helper (Th) responses and antibody isotypes. Traditionally, adjuvants have been added to intrinsically poor immunogenic vaccines, such as those using whole killed organisms or subunit vaccines.
Here, we have compared cellular immune responses induced by the immunogenic modified life-attenuated vaccine Ingelvac PRRS1 MLV when administered alone or in combination with carbopol, a widely used adjuvant in veterinary medicine. Using functional readouts (IFN-g ELISpot and cell proliferation) and analyzing phenotypical hallmarks of CD4T cell differentiation, we show that carbopol improves cellular immunity by inducing early IFN-g-producing cells and by preferentially driving T cell differentiation to effector phenotypes.
Our data suggest that adjuvants may enhance and modulate life-attenuated – not only subunit/inactivated – vaccines.